According to ISO 15189 norm, all pathological results must be verified by a competent professional. In some countries staff like clinical scientists do the majority of this work inside the laboratory with abnormal results referred to the relevant pathologist. In others, only medical staff (pathologist or clinical biologist) is concerned by this phase. It can be assisted by some software in order to validate normal or non modified results. Medical staff are sometimes also required in order to explain pathology results to physicians. For a simple result given by phone or for a technical problem it's a medical technologist explaining it to a registered nurse.
Departments in some countries are exclusively directed by a specialized Pathologist, in others a consultant, medical or non-medical, may be the Head of Department. Clinical Scientists have the right to interpret and discuss pathology results in their discipline in many countries, in Europe they are qualified to at least Masters level, may have a PhD and can have an exit qualification equivalent to medical staff e.g. FRCPath in the UK. In France only medical staff (Pharm.D. and M.D. specialized in Anatomical pathology or Clinical biology) can discuss pathological results, clinical scientists are not considered as a part of medical staff.